Flat Foot



This is a foot with less develop longitudinal arch.Flat feet, also called pes planus or fallen arches, is a condition in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. In some individuals (an estimated 20-30% of the general population) the arch simply never develops in one foot (unilaterally) or both feet (bilaterally).

Most people have “flexible flatfoot” as children; an arch is visible when the child rises up on the toes, but not when the child is standing. As you age, the tendons that attach to the bones of the foot grow stronger and tighten, forming the arch. But if injury or illness damages the tendons, the arch can “fall,” creating a flatfoot.




  • Infantile or physiological
  • Congenital vertical talus


  • Occupational
  • Obesity
  • Postural

Secondary to anatomical defect elsewere

  • External rotation of limb
  • Genu valgum
  • Equinus deformity of the ankle
  • Varus deformity of foot


  • Paralytic-flaccid flat foot
  • Spasmodic-due to peroneal spasm
  • Arthritic-rheumatoid arthritis
  • Traumatic-fracture calcaneum


In many adults, a low arch or a flatfoot is painless and causes no problems. However, a painful flatfoot can be a sign of a congenital abnormality or an injury to the muscles and tendons of the foot. Flat feet can even contribute to low back pain. If the condition progresses, you may experience problems with walking, climbing stairs and wearing shoes.


  • Congenital flat foot
  • Infantile flat foot
  • Acquired flat foot


see your doctor if you have:

  • Your feet tire easily or become painful with prolonged standing.
  • It’s difficult to move your heel or midfoot around, or to stand on your toes.
  • Your foot aches, particularly in the heel or arch area, with swelling along the inner side.
  • Pain in your feet reduces your ability to participate in sports.


Conservative treatment options include:

  • Specialised Physiotherapy treatment of Physioline
  • Making shoe modifications
  • Using orthotic devices such as arch supports and custom-made orthoses
  • Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen to relieve pain.
  • Using a short-leg walking cast or wearing a brace
  • Injecting a corticosteroid into the joint to relieve pain
  • Rest and ice

In some cases, surgery may be needed to correct the problem. Surgical procedures can help reduce pain and improve bone alignment. Types of surgery your Orthopedic surgeon may discuss with you include:

  • Arthrodesis, or welding (fusing) one or more of the bones in the foot/ankle together
  • Osteotomy, or cutting and reshaping a bone to correct alignment
  • Excision, or removing a bone or bone spur
  • Synovectomy, or cleaning the sheath covering a tendon
  • Tendon transfer, or using a piece of one tendon to lengthen or replace another

At Physioline, all the members of the rehabilitation team work together so as to provide proper care and the therapy in order to:

  • Pain relief
  • Reduce stiffness
  • Relieve spasm
  • Muscle strengthening
  • Prescription of splint.
  • Foot wear modification